data center

What is a data center?

A data center is a structure that houses an organization’s shared IT operations and equipment in order to store, process, and distribute data and applications. Data centers are important to the continuity of everyday operations since they store an organization’s most critical and proprietary assets. As a result, data center security and reliability, as well as the information they contain, are among an organization’s top considerations.

Data centers used to be tightly managed physical infrastructures, but the public cloud has changed that. Most modern data center infrastructures have evolved from on-premises physical servers to virtualized infrastructure that supports applications and workloads across multi-cloud environments, with the exception of regulatory requirements that require an on-premises data center without internet connections.

The Function of Data Center
The data center is an important infrastructure of any organization, as they support corporate applications and provide services like:

  • Data storage, administration, backup, and recovery are all important aspects of data management.
  • Email and other productivity applications
  • E-commerce transactions with a high volume
  • Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and big data
  • Providing support for online gaming communities

According to several research and reports, there are more than 7 million data centers in the world now. Almost every company and government agency either creates and maintains its own data center or has access to another’s, if not both. Many choices are available today, including renting servers at a colocation facility, employing third-party data center services, or using public cloud-based services from Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and Sony.

The Basic Components of Data Center
The structures and requirements of data centers might be somewhat different. A data center created for a cloud service provider like Amazon, for example, meets different facility, infrastructure, and security criteria than a wholly private data center, such as one built for a government facility dedicated to securing sensitive data. An effective data center operation, regardless of classification, is achieved through a balanced investment in the building and the equipment it houses. Furthermore, because data centers frequently store an organization’s business-critical data and applications, both the facilities and the equipment must be protected against intrusions and cyber attacks. Routers, switches, firewalls, storage systems, servers, and application delivery controllers are the empirical components of a data center design.

The following are the five major elements that must be present for a data center to work properly:
a) Application: It’s a computer program that provides the reasoning for performing calculations.
b) Database management system (DBMS): A systematic method to store data in an orderly table that is interlinked to each other is provided by a database management system (DBMS).
c) Host or Compute: A computing platform that works with an application database.
d) Storage: A storage device is one that saves data consistency for later use.
e) Network: A data channel that improves communication between all of its networked devices.

Types of Data Center Facilities
The growth and classification of various different types of data center facilities have resulted from the expansion of data center infrastructure. Here are some types of data center facilities-
a) Enterprise Data Center Facilities: These are facilities that are conventionally organized and owned and controlled by a single company. These are usually on-site, and maintenance, IT deployments, hardware upgrades, and network monitoring are all overseen by an in-house team.
b) Colocation Data Centers: A colocation data center is a shared data center where an organization can rent space for servers and other hardware. The advantages of colocation over in-house data centers include that the facility provides the building, power, HVAC, internet bandwidth, and physical security, while you (the customer) are responsible for providing and maintaining the hardware.
c) Cloud Data Center — In recent years, this sort of data center construction has grown in popularity. A cloud data center is an off-premises facility that your firm may use over the internet, but you are not responsible for managing the equipment.
d) Managed Data Centers: A corporation rents the physical infrastructure while a third-party managed service provider oversees the hardware and facility in a managed service data center arrangement.

For more information, you can watch this video on Anixter youtube channel:

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5S in 6 Sigma

What are the 5S in Six Sigma?

In a work environment, we cannot operate in a haphazard manner. It increases waste, reduces productivity, impacts delivery, and above all, results in customer dissatisfaction! So, by applying the 5S technique, we can solve the problem.

What is 5S?
The term came from the Japanese designer (at Toyota Production System) Taichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo. 5S is a set of 5 Japanese words starting with S. Translated into English, all the words start with S as well. The 5S’s sequenced as a series of 5 steps as follows –

Step 1: Sort [Seiri]
In this step, the 5s concept practitioner has the responsibility to go through all the equipment, tools, and resources they have and determine which equipment or resources have to be retained on the work floor and which resources have to be eliminated. When they find tools that are not relevant to their work they can simply place back that equipment into the concerned departments. If they feel that some resources need to be completely eliminated from the workspace, then they have to put a red tag on that particular item and get authorization or permission from their senior officials before they dispose of it or recycle the item. In simple words, the practitioner has to segregate the important or useful things from the unnecessary thing and discard the unnecessary.

Step 2: Straighten or Set in Order [Seiton]
In this step, the 5S practitioner has to re-organize their workplace after eliminating unnecessary tools and equipment. Here the practitioner follows the simple philosophy of “a place for everything, and everything in its place”. This will help the other staff members locate the required resources easily and swiftly. This concept can be applied to any sector. In other words, the practitioner of 5S concepts arranges all the resources and tools in a systematic manner.

Step 3: Shine [Seiso]
In this step, the practitioner ensures that the equipment and tools are tidy and can be readily used by other staff members. If this concept is applied in the information technology sector, then the practitioner has the responsibility to delete all the irrelevant files and folders. In simple words, this concept focuses on tidiness and cleanliness in the workplace.

Step 4: Standardize [Seiketsu]
The practitioner can combine similar work activities in their facility and allot a workspace for that particular process in the work facility. For instance, if there are five lathe machines scattered across different locations doing the same work, then the practitioner can place all these units in one place so that better results can be achieved through constant monitoring of work processes. This concept can be applied in any sector to reduce redundancy.

Step 5: Sustain [Shitsuke]
This is the final step or stage in the 5S concept implementation. In this stage, the practitioner has to ensure that tools/resources are in neat and tidy condition and are placed where they are meant to be.

Project management

What are the steps for completing a successful project?

Here are the 5 steps for completing a successful project.

1. Create a high-performing team
2. Planning
3. Execution
4. Keep tracking the team and work schedules
5. Keeping the business in mind

For example, you want to create an EV-car factory. Your first step would be, to create a high-performing team. The project manager will make a plan for how to make the car factory with that high-performing team.

Then the work execution will be started. This is the main step of the project. However, for the final result of the project, you need to keep tracking the team and work schedules. At the same time, you need to keep in mind the budget, business, and final deliverables.

Crankcase ERV

What is the function of an explosion relief valve (ERV) in a crankcase?

Crankcase overpressure relief valves have three functions:

(1) Rapidly relieve excess pressure inside the crankcase
(2) Prevent flame inside the crankcase from escaping and causing further damage
(3) Rapidly close after the crankcase pressure is relieved to prevent the air from entering into the crankcase.

Figure: Crankcase overpressure relief valve operation.

The figures show that the relief valves have a light spring that holds the valve tightly against its seat. The pressure inside the crankcase is relieved, and the spring closes the valve automatically. Figures show an image of a properly operating crankcase relief valve. The valve is still closed on the left of the picture while an internal explosion is about to open. On the right, the internal pressure has forced the valve open, compressing the spring while the hot pressurized gas, but not the flame, is vented to the atmosphere. Once the pressure is relieved, the compressed spring closes the valve.

Figure: ERV in the industry.

API 618 requires a relief area to crankcase volume ratio of 3.0 in²/ft³ (683 cm² /m³), which is higher than any of the engine standards. With properly sized and installed overpressure relief valves, experience has shown that the risk of damage and injury from crankcase explosions can be eliminated. Most compressor and engine manufacturers offer them as standard equipment on large machines and options for smaller frame sizes.

Final Words

The crankcase explosion relief valve (ERV) rapidly relieves excess pressure, prevents flame, and rapidly closes after the crankcase pressure is relieved.

More to Read

1. Renewable energy
2. Nuclear energy

Flow control valve

Why is a bypass line required for the control valve?

A bypass line may or may not be required during installing of a control valve in the piping of a process plant. Unless otherwise required, the necessity of installing a bypass line is determined by the P & ID creator (process engineer) in consideration of safety, operability, maintainability, economy, etc. Also, the process licensors and customers may be determined by the above requirements.

Therefore, in this article, I shall explain when a bypass line is necessary and whether it needs to be installed. In addition, we will also explain the points to keep in mind when installing a bypass line. By clearly stating the criteria for the necessity of bypass lines in a book that summarizes the concept and further describing it in the P & ID legend sheet (lead sheet), the process design department and the piping design department have a common understanding and are surely reflected in the design.

When installing a bypass line is required?

Bypass lines are often required at the control valve during plant operation. In a large process plant, it takes time to start up or shut down the entire process. Before the regular operation time, the production volume of the product (fluids such as steam or gas) needs to escape from the prime mover. So, installing a bypass line to the control valve can continue the operation.

Supplement: As for the pressure-equalizing line and pressure-equalizing valve installed around the high differential pressure control valve, the purpose of the installation is different from the above, so the consideration explained in this article is not necessary. In such a case, when performing maintenance of the control valve, close the block valves before and after the control valve, remove the control valve, and manually adjust the opening of the bypass valve to adjust the flow rate and control the operation of the plant.

When is a bypass line not required to install?

Depending on the fluid to be handled and the operating concept of the entire plant, troubles (leakage, erroneous operation, etc.) caused by installing a bypass line may not be tolerated. In such cases, the bypass line will not be installed even if the control valve has to shut down the plant for maintenance. In addition, from the viewpoint of the economy, there are cases where a bypass line is not installed to reduce the amount of piping work and the construction cost.

The above is decided by comprehensively considering operability and maintainability, construction cost, and operating cost, so it is necessary to consult with customers and related departments in good consultation. If a bypass line is not installed, an operation handle (hand-wheel) may be provided on the control valve as shown above to enable manual operation on-site if necessary. However, when selecting a control valve, consider whether the operation case at the low opening and high opening during unsteady operation is covered without bypass (whether the control valve is of the type with such rangeability).

In addition, as shown in the above figure, the control valve, including the cutoff circuit, often does not have a bypass line. We are considering the risk that dangerous fluid will flow out of the bypass line even though the broken circuit is working due to the opening due to the erroneous operation of the bypass line.

Points to be considered during installation of a bypass line

The flow coefficient (Cv) value
– of bypass valve ・ Countermeasures against the erroneous operation
– of bypass valve ・Operability of the bypass valve

Value of Bypass valve flow coefficient (Cv)
Since it is necessary to adjust the opening of the manual valve of the bypass line, the globe valve is basically selected. In principle, the same Cv value as the control valve is selected. However, depending on the operating case, it is necessary to select a valve that covers the low opening range and high opening range as necessary. The Cv is a universal capacity index and is simply defined in terms of U.S. gallons of water per minute at 60°F (or 15℃) that will flow through a valve with a pressure drop of 1 psi (or 6894.76 N/m2).

Countermeasures against the erroneous operation of the bypass valve

If the bypass valve is inadvertently opened by operation during operation, there is a risk that the operation will be disturbed, leading to plant failure or emergency stop. It needs to be designed properly. For example, removing the manual handle of the bypass valve during plant operation and using the Locked Open / Close specification are effective measures to prevent erroneous operations. It is also important to keep in mind the effect of opening the bypass valve by mistake and letting it flow back through the valve. If backflow is unacceptable, installing a shut-off valve on the upstream side is necessary.

Bypass valve operability

It is also necessary to think about the field indicators (pressure gauge, thermometer) necessity for operating the bypass valve should be installed in a place that can be seen from the operating position. For that purpose, it is necessary to consider the on-site target indicator by noting “In View” on the P & ID and clearly stating the relationship with the target bypass valve. It is also important to secure a space between the actuator and accessories and the bypass line, considering the maintainability and operability of the control valve.

Summary

In this article, I explained the idea of ​​the necessity of the control valve bypass line. Here is the summary of the article-
A bypass line may or may not be installed when installing a control valve in piping. Unless otherwise required, the necessity of installing a bypass line is determined by the P & ID creator (process engineer) in consideration of safety, operability, maintainability, economy, etc. Also, the process licensors and customers may determine the above requirements. By clearly stating the criteria for the necessity of bypass lines in a book that summarizes the concept and further describing it in the P & ID legend sheet (lead sheet), the process design department and the piping design department have a common understanding and are surely reflected in the design.

More to Read

Is nuclear energy renewable energy or not?

Although nuclear energy is considered clean energy its inclusion in the renewable energy list is a subject of major debate. To understand the debate we need to understand the definition of renewable energy and nuclear energy first.

Renewable energy is defined as an energy source/fuel type that can regenerate and can replenish itself indefinitely. The five renewable sources used most often are biomass, wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal.

Nuclear energy on the other hand is a result of heat generated through the fission process of atoms. All power plants convert heat into electricity using steam. At nuclear power plants, the heat to make the steam is created when atoms split apart – called fission. Fission releases energy in the form of heat and neutrons. The released neutrons then go on to hit other neutrons and repeat the process, hence generating more heat. In most cases the fuel used for nuclear fission is uranium.

Arguments for nuclear energy as a renewable energy

Most supporters of nuclear energy point out the low carbon emission aspect of nuclear energy as its major characteristic to be defined as renewable energy. According to nuclear power opponents, if the goal to build a renewable energy infrastructure is to lower carbon emission then there is no reason for not including nuclear energy in that list. [1]

But one of the most interesting arguments for including nuclear energy in the renewable energy portfolio came from Bernard L Cohen, former professor at the University of Pittsburg. Professor Cohen defined the term ‘indefinite'(time span required for an energy source to be sustainable enough to be called renewable energy) in numbers by using the expected relationship between the sun (source of solar energy) and the earth. According to Professor Cohen, if the Uranium deposit could be proved to last as long as the relationship between the Earth and Sun is supposed to last (5 billion years) then nuclear energy should be included in the renewable energy portfolio. [2]

In his article, Professor Cohen claims that using breeder reactors (nuclear reactor able to generate more fissile material than it consumes) it is possible to fuel the earth with nuclear energy indefinitely. Although the amount of uranium deposit available could only supply nuclear energy for about 1000 years, Professor Cohen believes the actual amount of uranium deposit available is way more than what is considered extractable right now. In his arguments, he includes uranium that could be extracted at a higher cost, uranium from the sea-water, and also uranium from eroding earth crust by river water. All of those possible uranium resources if used in a breeder reactor would be enough to fuel the earth for another 5 billion years and hence render nuclear energy as renewable energy. [2]

Arguments against nuclear as a renewable energy

One of the biggest arguments against including nuclear energy in the list of renewable is the fact that uranium deposit on earth is finite, unlike solar and wind. To be counted as renewable, the energy source (fuel) should be sustainable for an indefinite period of time, according to the definition of renewable energy.

Another major argument proposed by the opponents of including nuclear energy as renewable energy is the harmful nuclear waste from nuclear power reactors. Nuclear waste is considered a radioactive pollutant that goes against the notion of a renewable energy source. [1] Yucca Mountain is one of the examples used quite often to prove this point. Most of the opponents in the US also point at the fact that while most renewable energy sources could render the US energy independent, uranium would still keep the country energy-dependent as the US would still have to import uranium. [1]

Final words

It seems like at the heart of the debate lies the confusion over the exact definition of renewable energy and the requirements that need to be met in order to be one. The recent statement by Helene Pelosi, the interim director general of IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency), saying IRENA will not support nuclear energy programs because its a long, complicated process, it produces waste, and is relatively risky, proves that their decision has nothing to do with having a sustainable supply of fuel. [3] And if that’s the case then nuclear proponents would have to figure out a way to deal with the nuclear waste management issue and other political implications of nuclear power before they can ask IRENA to reconsider including nuclear energy in the renewable energy list.

References

[1] K. Johnson, “Is Nuclear Power Renewable Energy,” Wall Street Journal, 21 May 09.
[2] B.L. Cohen, “Breeder Reactors: A Renewable Energy Source,” Am. J. Phys. 51, 75 (1983).
[3] J. Kanter, “Is Nuclear Power Renewable,” New York Times, 3 Aug 09.

More to Read

1. Renewable energy
2. Nuclear energy

Wind Energy

Wind power is the generation of electricity from wind. Wind power harvests the primary energy flow of the atmosphere generated from the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the Sun. Therefore, wind power is an indirect way to harness solar energy. Wind power is converted to electrical energy by wind turbines.

Wind Resource

Several different factors influence the potential wind resource in an area. The three main factors that influence power output are: – wind speed,
air density,
– and blade radius.
Wind turbines need to be in areas with a lot of wind on a regular basis, which is more important than having occasional high winds.

Wind Speed

Wind speed largely determines the amount of electricity generated by a turbine. Higher wind speeds generate more power because stronger winds allow the blades to rotate faster. Faster rotation translates to more mechanical power and more electrical power from the generator.

Turbines are designed to operate within a specific range of wind speeds. The limits of the range are known as the cut-in speed and cut-out speed. The cut-in speed is the point at which the wind turbine is able to generate power. Between the cut-in speed and the rated speed, where the maximum output is reached, the power output will increase cubically with wind speed. For example, if wind speed doubles, the power output will increase 8 times. This cubic relationship is what makes wind speed such an important factor for wind power. This cubic dependence does cut out at the rated wind speed. This leads to the relatively flat part of the curve, so the cubic dependence is during speeds below 15 m/s (54 kph).

The cut-out speed is the point at which the turbine must be shut down to avoid damage to the equipment. The cut-in and cut-out speeds are related to the turbine design and size and are decided on prior to construction.

Air Density

Power output is related to the local air density, which is a function of altitude, pressure, and temperature. Dense air exerts more pressure on the rotors, which results in higher power output.

Turbine Design

Wind turbines are designed to maximize the rotor blade radius to maximize power output. Larger blades allow the turbine to capture more of the kinetic energy of the wind by moving more air through the rotors. However, larger blades require more space and higher wind speeds to operate. As a general rule, turbines are spaced out at four times the rotor diameter. This distance is necessary to avoid interference between turbines, which decreases the power output.

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Hydro Energy

Hydropower extracts mechanical energy from water, transforming it into electrical energy to generate electricity. Water in the environment often has both gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy, which can generate electricity using a generator. Note that traditionally this does not refer to the energy obtained from flowing water in the form of tides. In the case of obtaining energy from the tides, the term tidal power is used. The amount of potential energy stored in a body of water at a hydroelectric dam is measured using the height difference between the head race and tail race, known as the elevation head (part of the hydraulic head). Roughly 1/6th of the electricity in the world comes from hydropower facilities, while values in the earlier twentieth century were much higher. In some countries around the world, hydroelectricity is the dominant form of electrical power generation.

Countries such as China, Canada, and Brazil are the leaders in total hydroelectricity generation with capacities of 200 GW, 89 GW, and 70 GW respectively. Other notable producers include Russia, India, Norway, Japan, and Venezuela (which is almost completely dependent on hydropower). See the data visualization below for more statistics on hydroelectricity around the world. Figure 2. Photograph of a water wheel in Syria in 1916 used here for irrigation purposes.

Generation

Humans have been harnessing energy from water for millennia, although not explicitly for electricity generation. The ancient Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat over 2000 years ago. Hydropower continued to be exclusively converted directly into mechanical power up until the end of the 19th century when electrical dynamos were attached to the shaft to generate electricity. Dynamos were the first type of electrical generator.

Hydroelectricity is generated at a hydroelectric facility which for large-scale generation includes a hydroelectric dam. At these facilities a dam holds back a large volume of water, creating a reservoir. This reservoir holds water at a higher elevation than the water on the downstream side of the dam. Compared to the water in the river, the water in the reservoir has a greater amount of potential energy. When a gate is opened at the top of the dam, the water from the reservoir flows through channels called penstocks down to the turbines. When the water reaches the turbines the potential energy it contains is converted into kinetic energy. This flowing water is then used to turn the blades of the turbine. As the turbines spin, they move a generator and generate electricity.

Although many hydroelectric facilities utilize dams, there are some types of systems that do not use dams and have very little water storage (meaning there is no large reservoir of stored water). These types of systems are known as run-of-the-river systems, and have been gaining popularity as an alternative to large-scale reservoir dams.[7]

Classifications

Conventional hydroelectric generation relies on a hydraulic head difference created by man-made dams and obstructions. The majority of current hydroelectric generation is conventional and is comprised of hydroelectric dams and tidal dams. Unconventional generation techniques generally rely on flow rate or on a small head differential. These unconventional techniques produce less energy than conventional methods, but also have less impact on the surrounding environment.[7] Some examples of unconventional hydropower platforms are low head hydro, run-of-the-river systems, instream hydro, and kinetic tidal.

Each type of hydroelectric generation method has an associated output classification based on its capacity and are outlined in the table below.[8]

ClassificationCapacity
Large> 100 MW
Medium15 – 100 MW
Small1 – 15 MW
Mini100 kW – 1 MW
Micro5 – 100 kW
Pico~ 200 W – 5 kW

Benefits and Drawbacks

Hydroelectric power stations produce significantly fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other electricity generation options, such as the combustion of fossil fuels.[9] The cost of operation once the dams and reservoirs are built is relatively inexpensive and these facilities can operate at very high efficiencies.[3] However, the construction of these dams and reservoirs can result in habitat loss for aquatic species and an increase in greenhouse gas emissions due to the decomposition of organic matter in the newly flooded reservoirs.[9] For more information on the ecological impacts of hydropower facilities, see: water quality degradation and environmental impacts of hydropower.

The mechanical energy derived from hydropower is considered high-quality energy and can be converted to electrical energy with near 100% efficiency. This is because there are minimal amounts of thermal energy transformation involved, though there are still minor losses associated with friction and inefficiencies in the transportation of electricity (as a result of factors such as resistance in transmission lines). Overall, this means energy from water can be converted to electricity and delivered to the end-user with efficiencies higher than 90%.

For Further Reading

Biomass Energy

Biomass Energy

Hydropower extracts mechanical energy from water, transforming it into electrical energy to generate electricity. Water in the environment often has both gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy, which can generate electricity using a generator. Note that traditionally this does not refer to the energy obtained from flowing water in the form of tides. In the case of obtaining energy from the tides, the term tidal power is used. The amount of potential energy stored in a body of water at a hydroelectric dam is measured using the height difference between the head race and tail race, known as the elevation head (part of the hydraulic head). Roughly 1/6th of the electricity in the world comes from hydropower facilities, while values in the earlier twentieth century were much higher. In some countries around the world, hydroelectricity is the dominant form of electrical power generation.[2]

Countries such as China, Canada, and Brazil are the leaders in total hydroelectricity generation with capacities of 200 GW, 89 GW, and 70 GW respectively.[3] Other notable producers include Russia, India, Norway, Japan, and Venezuela (which is almost completely dependent on hydropower).[3] See the data visualization below for more statistics on hydroelectricity around the world. Figure 2. Photograph of a water wheel in Syria in 1916 used here for irrigation purposes.[4]

Generation

Humans have been harnessing energy from water for millennia, although not explicitly for electricity generation. The ancient Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat over 2000 years ago.[5] Hydropower continued to be exclusively converted directly into mechanical power up until the end of the 19th century when electrical dynamos were attached to the shaft to generate electricity.[6] Dynamos were the first type of electrical generator.

Hydroelectricity is generated at a hydroelectric facility which for large-scale generation includes a hydroelectric dam. At these facilities a dam holds back a large volume of water, creating a reservoir. This reservoir holds water at a higher elevation than the water on the downstream side of the dam. Compared to the water in the river, the water in the reservoir has a greater amount of potential energy. When a gate is opened at the top of the dam, the water from the reservoir flows through channels called penstocks down to the turbines. When the water reaches the turbines the potential energy it contains is converted into kinetic energy. This flowing water is then used to turn the blades of the turbine. As the turbines spin, they move a generator and generate electricity.

Although many hydroelectric facilities utilize dams, there are some types of systems that do not use dams and have very little water storage (meaning there is no large reservoir of stored water). These types of systems are known as run-of-the-river systems, and have been gaining popularity as an alternative to large-scale reservoir dams.[7]

Classifications

Conventional hydroelectric generation relies on a hydraulic head difference created by man-made dams and obstructions. The majority of current hydroelectric generation is conventional and is comprised of hydroelectric dams and tidal dams. Unconventional generation techniques generally rely on flow rate or on a small head differential. These unconventional techniques produce less energy than conventional methods, but also have less impact on the surrounding environment.[7] Some examples of unconventional hydropower platforms are low head hydro, run-of-the-river systems, instream hydro, and kinetic tidal.

Each type of hydroelectric generation method has an associated output classification based on its capacity and are outlined in the table below.[8]

ClassificationCapacity
Large> 100 MW
Medium15 – 100 MW
Small1 – 15 MW
Mini100 kW – 1 MW
Micro5 – 100 kW
Pico~ 200 W – 5 kW

Benefits and Drawbacks

Hydroelectric power stations produce significantly fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other electricity generation options, such as the combustion of fossil fuels.[9] The cost of operation once the dams and reservoirs are built is relatively inexpensive and these facilities can operate at very high efficiencies.[3] However, the construction of these dams and reservoirs can result in habitat loss for aquatic species and an increase in greenhouse gas emissions due to the decomposition of organic matter in the newly flooded reservoirs.[9] For more information on the ecological impacts of hydropower facilities, see: water quality degradation and environmental impacts of hydropower.

The mechanical energy derived from hydropower is considered high-quality energy and can be converted to electrical energy with near 100% efficiency. This is because there are minimal amounts of thermal energy transformation involved, though there are still minor losses associated with friction and inefficiencies in the transportation of electricity (as a result of factors such as resistance in transmission lines). Overall, this means energy from water can be converted to electricity and delivered to the end user with efficiencies higher than 90%.[10]

World Electricity Generation: Hydroelectricity

The map below shows the primary energy sources different countries use to generate their electricity. Hydroelectricity is seen in blue. Click on the region to zoom into a group of countries, then click on the country to see where its electricity comes from. Some notable countries include China, Canada, Brazil, Russia, India, Norway, and Venezuela.

https://energyeducation.ca/simulations/OECD/map-pie-line.php

For Further Reading

References

Wikimedia Commons. (August 31, 2015). Ingur Hydroelectric Facility [Online]. Available: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ingur_Hydroelectric_Power_Station.jpg dom (May 23, 2020). “Global Use of Hydroelectricity” [Online]. Available: https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth104/node/1060 Abhishek Shah. (September 2, 2015). List of World’s Largest Hydroelectricity Plants and Countries – China Leading in building Hydroelectric Stations [Online]. Available: http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2011/03/29/list-of-worlds-largest-hydroelectricity-plants-and-countries-china-leading-in-building-hydroelectric-stations/ Wikimedia Commons. (May 30, 2020). Popular Science Monthly Vol. 88 [Online]. Available: https://archive.org/details/popularsciencemo88newyuoft/page/82/mode/2up/search/water+wheel IEA. (September 2, 2015). What is hydropower’s history? [Online]. Available: http://www.ieahydro.org/What_is_hydropower’s_history.html Water Power Program: History of Hydropower. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/water/hydro_history.html BC Sustainable Energy Association (May 23rd, 2020) “Small Hydro and Run-Of-River Hydro” [Online]. Available: https://www.bcsea.org/node/4063/bcsea-info IPCC. (September 2, 2015). Chapter 5 – Hydropower [Online]. Available: www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/drafts/SRREN-FOD-Ch05.pdf International Hydropower Association (May 30,2020).GHG Measurement Guidelines for Freshwater Reservoirs [Online]. Accessible: https://www.hydropower.org/sites/default/files/publications-docs/GHG%20Measurement%20Guidelines%20for%20Freshwater%20Reservoirs.pdf

  1. R. Wolfson. Energy, Environment and Climate, 2nd ed. New York, U.S.A.: Norton, 2012

Authors and Editors

Ethan Boechler, Edwin Cey, Glenn Hall, Jordan Hanania, James Jenden, Ellen Lloyd, Finley Rogers, Kailyn Stenhouse, Luisa Vargas Suarez, Dayna Wiebe, Jason Donev